Research Papers

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Research Papers 2017-03-24T19:04:40+00:00

The information supplied on this website and in our information materials is based on published research on GBS from around the world plus, where that is not available, the experience and expertise of our medical panel and other experts in the field. We are always on the look out for new research papers being published to keep our information up-to-date. You may be interested in our recent report (click here for Screening will save newborn lives: A case for the introduction of routine screening for GBS in late pregnancy).

If you would like a more detailed list of abstracts, then please click on this link to PubMed – there are over 8,000 papers listed, although not all are relevant.

If you would like to learn more about research into GBS, the following may be useful which comprise the published papers which we think are particularly important. UK and International papers are listed in the tabs below, both sections sorted by date.

Group B streptococcal disease in infants . Heath P. BPSU Annual Report 2015-2016. (2016). London: British Paediatric Surveillance Unit, pp.10-12. 

Group B Streptococcal (GBS) disease in UK and Irish infants younger than 90 days, 2014–2015.  O’Sullivan C, Lamagni T, Efstratiou A, Boyle M, Meehan M, Reynolds A, Doherty L, Cunney R & Heath P. (2016). Archives of Disease in Childhood, 101(Suppl 1), p. 2. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2016-310863.3.

Voluntary surveillance of pyogenic and non-pyogenic streptococcal bacteraemia in England, Wales and Northern Ireland: 2015 : Public Health England (serial online) Health Protection Report. 10(41): Bacteraemia. Nov 2016

Status of vaccine research and development of vaccines for GBS. Heath PT. Vaccine. 2016 Mar 15. pii: S0264-410X(16)00290-5. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.12.072.

RCOG Audit of current practice in preventing early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal disease in the UK. Second Report. RCOG. 2016.

Pyogenic and non-pyogenic streptococcal bacteraemia (EWNI, 2014): Public Health England (serial online) 2015 Health Protection Report. 9(41): Bacteraemia.

Severe sepsis in women with group B Streptococcus in pregnancy: an exploratory UK national case-control study. Kalin A, Acosta C, Kurinczuk JJ, Brocklehurst P, Knight M. BMJ Open. 2015 Oct 8;5(10):e007976.

Group B Strep: where we are and where we’re heading. Trowman C, Steer P, Plumb J. MIDIRS Midwifery Digest, Vol 25, N02, June 2015, pp 161-164. Original article © MIDIRS 2015.

More needs to be done to prevent Group B strep infection in the UK. McQuaid F, Plumb J. BJM. Vol 23, No 6. 418-23. Published Online: June 04, 2015

RCOG Audit of current practice in preventing early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal disease in the UK. First Report. RCOG. 2015.

Pyogenic and non-pyogenic streptococcal bacteraemia (EWNI, 2013): Public Health England (serial online) 2014 Health Protection Report. 8(44): Bacteraemia.

Prevention of early-onset Group B Streptococcal disease – the Northern Ireland experience. Eastwood K, Craig S, Sidhu H, Boyle M, Gannon C, Ong G, Lupari M, Craven A, Magowan S, Ashe R. BJOG. 2014 May 23.

Trends in bacterial, mycobacterial, and fungal meningitis in England and Wales 2004-11: an observational study. Okike IO, Ribeiro S, Ramsay ME, Heath PT, Sharland M, Ladhani SN. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014 Apr;14(4):301-7. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(13)70332-3. Epub 2014 Feb 7.

Attitudes towards vaccination against group B streptococcus in pregnancy. McQuaid F, Jones C, Stevens Z, Plumb J, Hughes R, Bedford H, Heath PT, Snape MD. Arch Dis Child. 19 December 2013

Voluntary surveillance of pyogenic and non-pyogenic streptococcal bacteraemia in England, Wales and Northern Ireland: 2012 Public Health England (serial online) 2013 Health Protection Report. 7(46): Bacteraemia

Professionals respond to GBS article. Stewart M, Scamell M, McFarlane A / Plumb J, Clayton G. The Practising Midwife Oct 2013.

Childhood meningitis in the conjugate vaccine era: a prospective cohort study. Sadarangani M, Willis L, Kadambari S, Gormley S, Young Z, Beckley R, Gantlett K, Orf K, Blakey S, Martin NG, Kelly DF, Heath PT, Nadel S, Pollard AJ. Arch Dis Child. 2014 Sep 25. pii: archdischild-2014-306813. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2014-306813.

Emerging Trends in the Epidemiology of Invasive Group B Streptococcal Disease in England and Wales,1991-2010. Lamagni TL et al. Clin Infect Dis. (2013) 57 (5):682-688.doi: 10.1093/cid/cit337 July 11, 2013

Group B streptococcus infection: risk and prevention Plumb, J. Clayton, G. The Practising Midwife Jul 2013

Screening will save newborn lives: a case for the introduction of routine screening for GBS late in pregnancy. Plumb J. GBSS. June 2013

GBS public awareness, advocacy, and prevention–what’s working, what’s not and why we need a maternal GBS vaccine. Burns G, Plumb J. Vaccine. 2013 Aug 28;31 Suppl 4:D58-65. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.02.039.

Pyogenic and non-pyogenic streptococcal bacteraemia, England, Wales and Northern Ireland: 2011 Health Protection Report [serial online] 2012; 6(46): Bacteraemia

Antenatal screening for group B streptococcus. Senior K. Lancet Infect Dis. 2012 Aug;12(8):589-90.

Screening will save newborn lives: a case for the introduction of routine screening for GBS in late pregnancy.Plumb J. GBSS. Jul 2012.

Feasibility of using microbiology diagnostic tests of moderate or high complexity at the point – of – care in a delivery suite. Gray JW, Milner PJ, Edwards EH, Daniels JP, Khan KS. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2012 Jul;32(5):458-60.

Non-culture detection of Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B Streptococcus) in clinical samples by real-time PCR. de Zoysa A, Edwards K, Gharbia S, Underwood A, Charlett A, Efstratiou A. Health Protection Agency, London, UK. J Med Microbiol. 2012 Jun 26.

Early onset group B streptococcus sepsis: guidelines review. Martin A, Vergnano S, Heath P, Anthony M, Kennea N, Watts T, Embleton N, Collinson A. Journal of Infection Prevention. May 2012 vol. 13 no. 3 75-78

Streptococcus B in pregnancy: to screen or not to screen? GBSS Medical Panel. BMJ April 2012

Group B streptococcal disease in infants aged younger than 3 months: systematic review and meta-analysis. Karen M Edmond, Christina Kortsalioudaki, Susana Scott, Stephanie J Schrag, Anita K M Zaidi, Simon Cousens, Paul T Heath. 2012 Jan. The Lancet

Pyogenic and non-pyogenic streptococcal bacteraemia, England, Wales and Northern Ireland: 2010 Health Protection Report [serial online] 2011; 5(46): Bacteraemia

Group B Streptococcal infection in infants Thakkar R. GP. Aug 2011

An update on vaccination against group B streptococcus Heath PT. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2011 May;10(5):685-94

Myth: Group B streptococcal infection in pregnancy: Comprehended and conquered Steer PJ, Plumb J. Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine. 13 April 2011.

Intrapartum tests for group B streptococcus: accuracy and acceptability of screening Daniels JP, Gray J, Pattison HM, Gray R, Hills RK, Khan KS; GBS Collaborative Group. BJOG. 2011 Jan;118(2):257-65. Epub 2010 Oct 13.

Cost-effectiveness of rapid tests and other existing strategies for screening and management of early-onset group B streptococcus during labour Kaambwa B, Bryan S, Gray J, Milner P, Daniels J, Khan K, Roberts T. BJOG. 2010 Dec; 117(13): 1616-27.

The contribution of infections to neonatal deaths in England and Wales Depani SJ, Ladhani S, Heath PT, Lamagni TL, Johnson AP, Pebody RG, Ramsay ME, Sharland M.Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011 Apr;30(4):345-7.

Neonatal infections in England: the NeonIN surveillance network Vergnano S, Menson E, Kennea N, Embleton N, Russell AB, Watts T, Robinson MJ, Collinson A, Heath PT. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2011 Jan;96(1):F9-F14. Epub 2010 Sep 27.

Pyogenic and non-pyogenic streptococcal bacteraemia, England, Wales and Northern Ireland:2009 Health Protection Report [serial online] 2010;4(46):bacteraemia.

Pyogenic and non-pyogenic streptococcal bacteraemias, England, Wales and Northern Ireland: 2008 November 2009;3(49):bacteraemia

Rapid testing for group B streptococcus during labour: a test accuracy study with evaluation of acceptability and cost-effectiveness J Daniels, J Gray, H Pattison, T Roberts, E Edwards, P Milner, L Spicer, E King, RK Hills, R Gray, L Buckley, L Magill, N Elliman, B Kaambwa, S Bryan, R Howard, P Thompson and KS Khan. September 2009 Health Technol Assess 2009;13(42):1–178.

Group B streptococcal disease in infants: a case control study. May 2009. Arch Dis Child. Heath PT, Balfour G, Tighe H, Verlander NQ, Lamagni T, Efstratiou A.

Missed opportunities for preventing GBS infections May 2009. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. Vergnano S, Embleton ND, Collinson A, Menson E, Bedford Russell AR, Heath PT.

Pyogenic and non-pyogenic Streptococcal bacteraemia, England, Wales & Northern Ireland: 2007 2008 November. HPR Vol 2 No 47.

The economic costs of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) disease: prospective cohort study of infants with GBS disease in England Nov 2008. Euro J Health Econ Schroeder EA, Petrou S, Balfour G, Edamma O, Heath PT; on behalf of the Health Protection Agency Group B Streptococcus Working Group.

Group B Strep: Testing Times. The Practising Midwife 2007 Dec; Vol 10 No 11 27-30. Plumb J, Holwell D, Clayton G.

Pyogenic and non-pyogenic Streptococcal bacteraemia, England, Wales & Northern Ireland: 2006 2007 November. HPR Vol 1 No 45.

Preventative strategies for group B streptococcal and other bacterial infections in early infancy: cost effectiveness and value of information analyses BMJ. 2007 Sep 29;335(7621):655. Epub 2007 Sep 11. Colbourn TE, Asseburg C, Bojke L, Philips Z, Welton NJ, Claxton K, Ades AE, Gilbert RE

Prenatal screening and treatment strategies to prevent group B streptococcal and other bacterial infections in early infancy: cost-effectiveness and expected value of information analyses Health Technol Assess. 2007 Aug;11(29):1-226. Colbourn T, Asseburg C, Bojke L, Philips Z, Claxton K, Ades AE, Gilbert RE.

Pyogenic and non-pyogenic streptococcal bacteraemia, England, Wales and Northern Ireland: 2005. Commun Dis Rep Wkly [serial online] 2006;16(46): Bacteraemia,

Water Birth for Women with GBS: A Pipe Dream? Plumb J, Holwell D, Burton R, Steer PJ. Practising Midwife April 2007

An overview of the natural history of early onset group B streptococcal disease in the UK. Colbourn T, Gilbert R. Early Hum Dev. 2007 Mar;83(3):149-56.

Perinatal group B streptococcal disease Heath PT, Schuchat A. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2007 Jun;21(3):411-24.

Carriage of group B streptococcus in pregnant women from Oxford, UK Jones N, Oliver K, Jones Y, Haines A, Crook D. J Clin Pathol. 2006 Apr;59(4):363-6.

Could peripartum antibiotics have delayed health consequences for the infant? Bedford Russell AR, Murch SH. BJOG. 2006 Jul;113(7):758-65.

Pyogenic and non-pyogenic streptococcal bacteraemia, England, Wales and Northern Ireland: 2004. Commun Dis Rep Wkly [serial online] 2005;15(24): Bacteraemia

The prevention of neonatal group B streptococcal disease: a report by a working group of the Medical Screening Society. Law MR, Palomaki G, Alfirevic Z, Gilbert R, Heath P, McCartney C, Reid T, Schrag S. Journal of Medical Screening, 2005.

The effect of prepartum antibiotics on the type of neonatal bacteraemia: insights from the MRC ORACLE trials. Gilbert RE, Pike K, Kenyon SL, Tarnow-Mordi W, Taylor DJ. British Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, June 2005.

Vaccination against Group B streptococcus. Heath PT, Feldman RG. Expert Review Vaccines, April 2005.

Pyogenic and non-pyogenic streptococcal bacteraemia, England, Wales and Northern Ireland: 2003. Commun Dis Rep Wkly [serial online] 2004; 13(16): Bacteraemia

Early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal infection in London: 1990-1999. Mifsud AJ, Efstratiou A, Charlett A, McCartney AC; Health Protection Agency Group B Streptococcus Working GroupBritish Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, September 2004.

Characterization of group B streptococci recovered from infants with invasive disease in England and WalesWeisner AM, Johnson AP, Lamagni TL, Arnold E, Warner M, Heath PT, Efstratiou A. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 May 1;38(9):1203-8.

Antenatal screening and intrapartum management of Group B Streptococcus in the UK. Kenyon S, Brocklehurst P, Blackburn A, Taylor DJ. British Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, March 2004.

Group B streptococcal disease in UK and Irish infants younger than 90 days. Heath PT, Balfour G, Weisner AM, Efstratiou A, Lamagni TL, Tighe H, O’Connell LA, Cafferkey M, Verlander NQ, Nicoll A, McCartney AC; PHLS Group B Streptococcus Working Group.Lancet, January 2004.

Pyogenic and non-pyogenic streptococcal bacteraemia, England, Wales and Northern Ireland: 2002. Commun Dis Rep Wkly [serial online] 2003; 13(16): Bacteraemia

Estimated early-onset group B streptococcal neonatal disease. Luck S, Torny M, d’Agapeyeff K, Pitt A, Heath P, Breathnach A, Russell AB. Lancet, June 2003.

Pyogenic and non-pyogenic streptococcal bacteraemia, England and Wales, 2001.  Commun Dis Rep Wkly [serial online] 2002; 12(16): Bacteraemia

Risk factors for early onset neonatal group B streptococcal sepsis: case-control study. Sam Oddie, Nicholas D Embleton, on behalf of the Northern Neonatal Network. BMJ, August 2002

Maternal screening to prevent neonatal Group B streptococcal disease. J Med Screen 2002;9:191

Prevention of early onset neonatal GBS infection. McCartney AC. Journal of Medical Screening, 2001.

Fetal and neonatal death from maternally acquired infection. Embleton, N, The Northern Region’s Perinatal Mortality Survey (2001). Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 15 (1) , 54–60 doi:10.1046/j.1365-3016.2001.00314.x January 2001

Variations in the investigation and management of group B streptococcus in Scotland. Moss HJ, Mathers AM, Björnsson S, Cameron AD, Williams J, Pell J. Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 21(1):21-3. January 2001.

Neonatal group B streptococcal infection in South Bedfordshire, 1993-1998. Kathryn Beardsall, M H Thompson, R J Mulla. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2000 May

Mortality from early onset group B streptococcal infection in the United Kingdom. Embleton N. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed, March 1999

Prevention of group B streptococcal infection in neonates Feldman RG. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 1998 Jun;11(3):325-9.

Prevention of early onset group B streptococcal disease by universal antenatal culture-based screening in all public hospitals in Hong Kong. Ma TW, Chan V, So CH, Hui AS, Lee CN, Hui AP, So PL, Kong CW, Fung B, Leung KY. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2017 Mar 21:1-7.

Group B streptococcal disease in infants in the first year of life: a nationwide surveillance study in Japan, 2011-2015. Matsubara K, Hoshina K, Kondo M, Miyairi I, Yukitake Y, Ito Y, Minami K, Genkawa R. Infection. 2017 Feb 25. doi: 10.1007/s15010-017-0995-2.

Group B Streptococci screening before repeat Cesarean delivery: A cost-effectiveness analysis. Albright, C., MacGregor, C., Sutton, D., Theva, M., Hughes, B. and Werner, E. (2016). Obstetrics and gynecology., 2017 Jan;129(1):111-119.

The prevention of early-onset neonatal group B Streptococcal disease. Money, D. and Allen, V. (2017), Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology Canada : JOGC = Journal d’obstetrique et gynecologie du Canada : JOGC., 38.

Obesity as an independent risk factor for group B streptococcal colonization. Alvareza MD, Subramaniam A, Tang Y, Edwards RK. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2016 Dec 20:1-4.

Risk factors for group B streptococcal disease in neonates of mothers with negative antenatal testing. Parente V, Clark RH, Ku L, Fennell C, Johnson M, Morris E, Romaine A, Utin U, Benjamin DK, Messina JA, Smith PB, Greenberg RG. J Perinatol. 2017 Feb;37(2):157-161. doi: 10.1038/jp.2016.201. Epub 2016 Nov 17.

Group B Streptococcus vaccine development: present status and future considerations, with emphasis on perspectives for low and middle income countries. Kobayashi M, Vekemans J, Baker CJ, Ratner AJ, Le Doare K, Schrag SJ. F1000Res. 2016 Sep 22;5:2355. eCollection 2016.

WHO consultation on group B vaccine development: Report from a meeting held on 27–28 April 2016. (2017) Kobayashi, M., Schrag, S.J., Alderson, M.R., Madhi, S.A., Baker, C.J., Meulen, A.S., Kaslow, D.C., Smith, P.G., Moorthy, V.S. and Vekemans, J. Vaccine, . doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.12.029.

Epidemiology of Invasive Early-Onset Neonatal Sepsis, 2005 to 2014. Schrag SJ, Farley MM, Petit S, Reingold A, Weston EJ, Pondo T, Hudson Jain J, Lynfield R. Pediatrics. 2016 Dec;138(6). pii: e20162013.

Challenges in reducing group B Streptococcus disease in African settings Nishihara, Y., Dangor, Z., French, N. and Madhi, S. (2017) Archives of Disease in Childhood, 102(1), pp. 72–77. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2016-311419.

Early-onset neonatal sepsis and the implementation of group B streptococcus prophylaxis in a Brazilian maternity hospital: a descriptive study. Freitas FT, Romero GA. Braz J Infect Dis. 2017 Jan – Feb;21(1):92-97.

Replacing risk-based early-onset-disease prevention with intrapartum group B streptococcus PCR testing Björklund V, Nieminen T, Ulander VM, Ahola T, Saxén H. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2016 Mar 31:1-22.

Relative Importance and Additive Effects of Maternal and Infant Risk Factors on Childhood Asthma. Wu P, Feldman AS, Rosas-Salazar C, James K, Escobar G, Gebretsadik T, Li SX, Carroll KN, Walsh E, Mitchel E, Das S, Kumar R, Yu C, Dupont WD, Hartert T1. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 22;11(3):e0151705.

The changing epidemiology of group B streptococcus bloodstream infection: a multi-national population-based assessment. Ballard MS, Schønheyder HC, Knudsen JD, Lyytikäinen O, Dryden M, Kennedy KJ, Valiquette L, Pinholt M, Jacobsson G, Laupland KB; International Bacteremia Surveillance Collaborative. Infect Dis (Lond). 2016 May;48(5):386-91. Epub 2016 Jan 12.

Reductions in neonatal listeriosis: “Collateral benefit” of Group B streptococcal prophylaxis? Lee B, Newland JG, Jhaveri R. J Infect. 2016 Mar;72(3):317-23. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2015.12.015. Epub 2016 Jan 6.

Maternal Immunization With an Investigational Trivalent Group B Streptococcal Vaccine: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Donders GG1, Halperin SA, Devlieger R, Baker S, Forte P, Wittke F, Slobod KS, Dull PM. Obstet Gynecol. 2016 Feb;127(2):213-21.

Maternal Immunization to Prevent Neonatal Group B Streptococcal Disease: New Progress and Promise. Schrag SJ. Obstet Gynecol. 2016 Feb;127(2):199-201.

Intrapartum antibiotic exposure for group B Streptococcus treatment did not increase penicillin allergy in children. May SM, Hartz MF, Joshi AY, Park MA. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2016 Feb;116(2):134-8.

En route towards prevention of neonatal group B streptococcal disease. Berner R. Lancet Infect Dis. 2016 Feb 8. pii: S1473-3099(15)00501-0.

Efficiency of Screening for the Recurrence of Antenatal Group B Streptococcus Colonization in a Subsequent Pregnancy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis with Independent Patient Data. Turrentine MA, Colicchia LC, Hirsch E, Cheng PJ, Tam T, Ramsey PS, Page-Ramsey SM. Am J Perinatol. 2015 Dec 18

Maternal colonization of group B streptococcus: prevalence, associated factors and antimicrobial resistance. Khan MA, Faiz A, Ashshi AM. Ann Saudi Med. 2015 Nov-Dec;35(6):423-7.

The prevention of early-onset neonatal group B streptococcus infection: New Zealand Consensus Guidelines 2014. Darlow B1, Campbell N, Austin N, Chin A, Grigg C, Skidmore C, Voss L, Walls T, Wise M, Werno A. N Z Med J. 2015 Nov 20;128(1425):69-76.

Evaluation of four chromogenic media for the isolation of Group B Streptococcus from vaginal specimens in pregnant women. Salem N, Anderson JJ. Pathology. 2015 Oct;47(6):580-2.

Risk Factors for Late-Onset Group B Streptococcal Disease Before and After Implementation of Universal Screening and Intrapartum Antibiotic Prophylaxis. Pintye J, Saltzman B, Wolf E, Crowell CS. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2015 Oct 12.

A Retrospective Audit of Clinically Significant Maternal Bacteraemia in a Specialist Maternity Hospital from 2001 to 2014. Drew RJ, Fonseca-Kelly Z, Eogan M. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2015:518562.

Impact of maternal intrapartum antibiotics, method of birth and breastfeeding on gut microbiota during the first year of life: a prospective cohort study. Azad MB, Konya T, Persaud RR, Guttman DS, Chari RS, Field CJ, Sears MR, Mandhane PJ, Turvey SE, Subbarao P, Becker AB, Scott JA, Kozyrskyj AL; CHILD Study Investigators. BJOG. 2015 Sep 28.

A questionnaire study on the acceptability of self-sampling versus screening by clinicians for Group B Streptococcus. Ko JK, Yung SS, Seto MT, Lee CP. J Chin Med Assoc. 2015 Sep 15. pii: S1726-4901(15)00220-8.

Maternal Obesity and Rectovaginal Group B Streptococcus Colonization at Term. Kleweis SM, Cahill AG, Odibo AO, Tuuli MG. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2015:586767.

Maternal Colonization with Group B Streptococcus Is Associated with an Increased Rate of Infants Transferred to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Brigtsen AK, Jacobsen AF, Dedi L, Melby KK, Fugelseth D, Whitelaw A. Neonatology. 2015;108(3):157-63.

Case Study of Intrapartum Antibiotic Prophylaxis and Subsequent Postpartum Beta-Lactam Anaphylaxis. Stark MA, Ross MF, Kershner W, Searing K. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2015 Sep-Oct;44(5):610-7.

Maternal group B Streptococcus-related stillbirth: a systematic review. Nan C1, Dangor Z, Cutland CL, Edwards MS, Madhi SA, Cunnington MC. BJOG. 2015 Oct;122(11):1437-45.

Maternal Obesity and Rectovaginal Group B Streptococcus Colonization at Term. Kleweis SM, Cahill AG, Odibo AO, Tuuli MG. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2015;2015:586767. doi: 10.1155/2015/586767. Epub 2015 Aug 2.

Early-onset neonatal group B streptococcus sepsis following national risk-based prevention guidelines. Darlow BA, Voss L, Lennon DR, Grimwood K. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2015 Jul 14.

Comparison of pre- and intrapartum screening of group B streptococci and adherence to screening guidelines: a cohort study. Kunze M, Zumstein K, Markfeld-Erol F, Elling R, Lander F, Prömpeler H, Berner R, Hufnagel M. Eur J Pediatr. 2015 Jun;174(6):827-35.

Group B Streptococcus vaccine: state of the art. Nuccitelli A, Rinaudo CD, Maione D. Ther Adv Vaccines. 2015 May;3(3):76-90.

Routine culture-based screening versus risk-based management for the prevention of early-onset group B streptococcus disease in the neonate: a systematic review. Kurz E, Davis D. JBI Database System Rev Implement Rep. 2015 Apr 17;13(3):206-46.

Screening and management of maternal colonization with Streptococcus agalactiae: an Italian cohort study. De Luca C, Buono N1, Santillo V, Licameli A, Straface G, Scambia G, De Santis M. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2016 Mar;29(6):911-5.

Vaginal group B streptococcus status during intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis. Scasso S, Laufer J, Rodriguez G, Alonso JG, Sosa CG. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2015 Apr;129(1):9-12. doi: 10.1016/j.ijgo.2014.10.018. Epub 2014 Dec 18.

Vaginal chlorhexidine during labour to prevent early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal infection. Ohlsson A1, Shah VS, Stade BC. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Dec 14;12:CD003520.

Incidence of invasive group B streptococcal disease and pathogen genotype distribution in newborn babies in the Netherlands over 25 years: a nationwide surveillance study. Bekker V, Bijlsma MW, van de Beek D, Kuijpers TW, van der Ende A. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014 Nov;14(11):1083-9. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(14)70919-3. Epub 2014 Oct 19.

Recurrence of group B streptococcus colonization in successive pregnancies. Colicchia LC, Lauderdale DS, Du H, Adams M, Hirsch E. J Perinatol. 2014 Oct 16. doi: 10.1038/jp.2014.185.

Intrapartum GBS screening and antibiotic prophylaxis: a European consensus conference. Di Renzo GC, Melin P, Berardi A, Blennow M, Carbonell-Estrany X, Donzelli GP, Hakansson S, Hod M, Hughes R, Kurtzer M, Poyart C, Shinwell E, Stray-Pedersen B, Wielgos M, El Helali N. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2014 Aug 27:1-17.

Does Maternal Intrapartum Antibiotic Treatment Prolong the Incubation Time Required for Blood Cultures to Become Positive for Infants with Early-Onset Sepsis? Sarkar SS, Bhagat I, Bhatt-Mehta V, Sarkar S. Am J Perinatol. 2014 Sep 13.

Using vaginal Group B Streptococcus colonisation in women with preterm premature rupture of membranes to guide the decision for immediate delivery: a secondary analysis of the PPROMEXIL trials. Tajik P, van der Ham DP, Zafarmand MH, Hof MH, Morris J, Franssen MT, de Groot CJ, Duvekot JJ, Oudijk MA, Willekes C, Bloemenkamp KW, Porath M, Woiski M, Akerboom BM, Sikkema JM, Nij Bijvank B, Mulder AL, Bossuyt PM, Mol BW. BJOG. 2014 Sep;121(10):1263-72; discussion 1273. doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.12889. Epub 2014 May 27.

Impact of Perinatal Practices for Early-onset Group B Streptococcal Disease Prevention. Berardi A, Lugli L, Rossi C, Guidotti I, Lanari M, Creti R, Perrone E, Biasini A, Sandri F, Volta A, China M, Sabatini L,Baldassarri L, Vagnarelli F, Ferrari F; on behalf of the GBS Prevention Working Group, Emilia-Romagna. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013 Jul;32(7):e265-e271.

Early-onset and late-onset group B streptococcal disease in Japan: a nationwide surveillance study, 2004-2010. Matsubara K, Hoshina K, Suzuki Y.
Int J Infect Dis. 2013 Jun;17(6):e379-84. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2012.11.027.

Screening pregnant women for group B streptococcus infection between 30 and 32weeks of pregnancy in a population at high risk for premature birth. Horváth B, Grasselly M, Bödecs T, Boncz I, Bódis J. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2013 Jul;122(1):9-12. doi: 10.1016/j.ijgo.2013.01.027. Epub 2013 Apr 8.

Effectiveness of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis for prevention of early-onset group B streptococcal disease. Fairlie T, Zell ER, Schrag S. Obstet Gynecol. 2013 Mar;121(3):570-7. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e318280d4f6.

Antibiotic resistance patterns among group B Streptococcus isolates: implications for antibiotic prophylaxis for early-onset neonatal sepsis. Capanna, Federica. Emonet, Stephane P. Cherkaoui, Abdessalam. et al. Swiss Med Wkly. 2013;143:w13778

Physical Examination Instead of Laboratory Tests for Most Infants Born to Mothers Colonized with Group B Streptococcus: Support for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s 2010 Recommendations. Cantoni L, Ronfani L, Da Riol R, Demarini S; Perinatal Study Group of the Region Friuli-Venezia Giulia. J Pediatr. 2013 Mar 8. pii: S0022-3476(13)00109-1. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.01.034. [Epub ahead of print] Duration of intrapartum antibiotics for group B streptococcus on the diagnosis of clinical neonatal sepsis.Turrentine MA, Greisinger AJ, Brown KS, Wehmanen OA, Mouzoon ME. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2013;2013:525878. doi: 10.1155/2013/525878. Epub 2013 Mar 28.

Accuracy of an Accelerated, Culture-Based Assay for Detection of Group B Streptococcus Jonathan P. Faro, , Karen Bishop, Gerald Riddle, Mildred M. Ramirez, Allan R. Katz, Mark A. Turrentine, Sebastian Faro. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2013; 2013: 367935. Published online 2013 February 19. doi: 10.1155/2013/367935 

Prevalence of positive recto-vaginal culture for Group B streptococcus in pregnant women at 35-37 weeks of gestation. Forough Javanmanesh, Nooshin Eshraghi. Med J Islam Repub Iran. 2013 February; 27(1): 7–11. 

Group B streptococcus late-onset disease: 2003-2010. Berardi A, Rossi C, Lugli L, Creti R, Bacchi Reggiani ML, Lanari M, Memo L, Pedna MF, Venturelli C, Perrone E, Ciccia M,Tridapalli E, Piepoli M, Contiero R, Ferrari F; GBS Prevention Working Group, Emilia-Romagna. Pediatrics. 2013 Feb;131(2):e361-8. doi: 10.1542/peds.2012-1231. Epub 2013 Jan 6.

Early onset neonatal group B streptococcal sepsis.Oh W. Am J Perinatol. 2013 Feb;30(2):143-7. doi: 10.1055/s-0032-1332804. Epub 2013 Jan 15

Usefulness of a rapid real-time PCR assay in prenatal screening for group B streptococcus colonization. Park JS, Cho DH, Yang JH, Kim MY, Shin SM, Kim EC, Park SS, Seong MW. Ann Lab Med. 2013 Jan;33(1):39-44. doi: 10.3343/alm.2013.33.1.39. Epub 2012 Dec 17.

Incidence of maternal GBS colonization and neonatal GBS disease among very low birth weight Polish neonates. Brzychczy-Wloch M, Wojkowska-Mach J, Helwich E, Heczko PB. Med Sci Monit. 2013 Jan 11;19:34-9.

Intrapartum antibiotics for known maternal Group B streptococcal colonization. Ohlsson A, Shah VS. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD007467. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007467.pub3.

Group B Streptococcus Late-Onset Disease: 2003-2010. Berardi A, Rossi C, Lugli L, Creti R, Bacchi Reggiani ML, Lanari M, Memo L, Pedna MF, Venturelli C, Perrone E, Ciccia M, Tridapalli E, Piepoli M, Contiero R, Ferrari F; on behalf of the GBS Prevention Working Group, Emilia-Romagna.Pediatrics. 2013 Jan 6.

Short communication: A comparative study assessing the efficacy and acceptability of anorectal swabs for antenatal GBS screening. Law KS, Parmar P, Gregora M, Abbott J. J Med Screen. 2013 Mar 25. [Epub ahead of print]

Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis for the prevention of perinatal group B streptococcal disease: Experience in the United States and implications for a potential group B streptococcal vaccine. Schrag SJ, Verani JR. Vaccine. 2012 Dec 3. pii: S0264-410X(12)01697-0

Preventing the broad spectrum of perinatal morbidity and mortality through group B streptococcal vaccination. Edwards MS, Gonik B. Vaccine. 2012 Nov 28. pii: S0264-410X(12)01660-X. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.11.046. [Epub ahead of print]

Prevention of neonatal gruop B Streptococcal infection: an experience of Vilnius University Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology. Lauzikiene D, Ramasauskaite D, Arlauskiene A, Zakareviciene J. Int J Gynec Obs. 119: 3(2012), S725.

[A study on early-onset group “B” streptococcal neonatal infection]. Vacheva R, Todorova M, Decheva A, Yarakova N, Kraleva I, Takova Ts, Dimitrova N, Dobreva A. Akush Ginekol (Sofiia). 2012;51(6):10-21.

Prevalence of Group B Streptococcus Colonization in Subsequent Pregnancies of Group B Streptococcus-Colonized versus Noncolonized Women. Page-Ramsey SM, Johnstone SK, Kim D, Ramsey PS. Am J Perinatol. 2012 Sep 21.

Assessment of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis for the prevention of early-onset group b streptococcal disease. Lin F-Y. The Pediatric infectious disease journal. 2011 Sep 30(9):759-63.

Improving perinatal Group B streptococcus screening with process indicators. Albouy-Llaty M, Nadeau C, Descombes E, Pierre F, Migeot V. J Eval Clin Pract. 2012 Aug;18(4):727-33. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2753.2011.01658.x. Epub 2011 Mar 18.

Efficacy of maternal and neonatal chemoprophylaxis for early-onset group B Streptococcal disease. Stafford IA, Stewart RD, Sheffield JS, Wendel GD Jr, Sanchez PJ, McIntire DD, Roberts SW. Obstet Gynecol. 2012 Jul;120(1):123-9.

The impact of group B streptococcus prophylaxis on late-onset neonatal infections. Ecker KL, Donohue PK, Kim KS, Shepard JA, Aucott SW. J Perinatol. 2012 Jun 14. doi: 10.1038/jp.2012.76.

Long-term Outcomes of Group B Streptococcal Meningitis. Libster R, Edwards KM, Levent F, Edwards MS, Rench MA, Castagnini LA, Cooper T, Sparks RC, Baker CJ, Shah PE. Pediatrics. 2012 Jul;130(1):e8-e15. Epub 2012 Jun 11.

Prevention of Neonatal Group B Sreptococcal Infection. Spanish Recommendations. Update 2012. SEIMC/SEGO/SEN/SEQ/SEMFYC Consensus Document. Alós Cortés JI, Andreu Domingo A, Arribas Mir L,Cabero Roura L, de Cueto López M, López Sastre J, Melchor Marcos JC, Puertas Prieto A, de la Rosa Fraile M,Salcedo Abizanda S, Sánchez Luna M, Sanchez Pérez MJ, Torrejon Cardoso R. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin.2012 Jun 1.

GBS Screening. N Walker. June 2012. O&G Vol 14:No 2:Winter 2012.

Management of group B streptococcal bacteriuria in pregnancy. Allen VM, Yudin MH, Bouchard C, Boucher M, Caddy S, Castillo E, Money DM, Murphy KE, Ogilvie G, Paquet C, van Schalkwyk J, Senikas V; Infectious Diseases Committee, Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2012 May;34(5):482-6.

Bacteruria with group-B streptococcus: is it a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes? Kessous R, Weintraub AY, Sergienko R, Lazer T, Press F, Wiznitzer A, Sheiner E. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2012 Apr 25.

Recolonization of gropu B Streptococcus (GBS) in women with prior GBS genital colonization in pregnancy.Tam T, Bilinski E, Lombard E. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2012 Apr 2

Early onset neonatal sepsis: the burden of group B Streptococcal and E. coli disease continues. Stoll BJ, Hansen NI, Sánchez PJ, Faix RG, Poindexter BB, Van Meurs KP, Bizzarro MJ, Goldberg RN, Frantz ID 3rd, Hale EC, Shankaran S, Kennedy K, Carlo WA, Watterberg KL, Bell EF, Walsh MC, Schibler K, Laptook AR, Shane AL, Schrag SJ, Das A, Higgins RD; Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. Pediatrics. 2011 May;127(5):817-26. Epub 2011 Apr 25.

International external quality assurance for laboratory identification and typing of Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococci). Afshar B, Broughton K, Creti R, Decheva A, Hufnagel M, Kriz P, Lambertsen L, Lovgren M, Melin P, Orefici G, Poyart C, Radtke A, Rodriguez-Granger J, Sørensen UB, Telford J, Valinsky L, Zachariadou L; Members of the DEVANI Study Group, Efstratiou A. Clin Microbiol. 2011 Apr;49(4):1475-82. Epub 2011 Feb 16.

Prevention of group B streptococcal neonatal disease revisited. The DEVANI European project. Rodriguez-Granger J, Alvargonzalez JC, Berardi A, Berner R, Kunze M, Hufnagel M, Melin P, Decheva A, Orefici G, Poyart C, Telford J, Efstratiou A, Killian M, Krizova P, Baldassarri L, Spellerberg B, Puertas A, Rosa-Fraile M. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2012 Feb 8

The Prevalence of Vaginal Microorganisms in Pregnant Women with Preterm Labor and Preterm Birth. Seong Jin Choi, M.D. Soon Deok Park, M.S. In Ho Jang, M.S. Young Uh, M.D. and Anna Lee, M.D. Ann Lab Med 2012;32:194-200. 2012 Feb/

Screening for group B Streptococcus in pregnancy women: a systematic review and meta-analysis. M Taminato, D Fram, MR Torloni, AG Belasco, H Saconato, DA Barbosa. Dec 2011. Rev Lat Am Enfermagem

Horizontal transmission of group B streptococcus in a neonatal intensive care unit. Morinis J, Shah J, Murthy P, Fulford M. Paediatr Child Health. 2011 Jun;16(6):e48-50.

Prevention of Perinatal Group B Streptococcal Disease. Revised Guidelines from CDC, 2010. Recommendations and Reports. November 19, 2010 / 59(RR10);1-32

Development of a Rapid PCR Assay for Screening of Maternal Colonization by Group B Streptococcus and Neonatal Invasive Escherichia coli during Labor Martínez de Tejada B, Stan CM, Boulvain M, Renzi G, François P, Irion O, Schrenzel J. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2010 Oct 16;70(4):250-255.

Incidence and distribution of pathogens in early-onset neonatal sepsis in the era of antenatal antibiotics. Kuhn P et al Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2010 Sep;24(5):479-87

Group B streptococcus: prevalence in a non-obstetric population. Leclair CM, Hart AE, Goetsch MF, Carpentier H, Jensen JT. J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2010 Jul;14(3):162-6.

The accuracy of late third-trimester antenatal screening for group B streptococcus in predicting colonization at delivery. Towers CV, Rumney PJ, Asrat T, Preslicka C, Ghamsary MG, Nageotte MP. Am J Perinatol. 2010 Nov;27(10):785-90. Epub 2010 May 10.

No Change in the Incidence of Ampicillin-Resistant, Neonatal, Early-Onset Sepsis Over 18 Years. Puopolo KM, Eichenwald EC. Pediatrics. 2010 Apr 12.

Late and ultra late onset Streptococcus B meningitis: clinical and bacteriological data over 6 years in France. Guilbert J, Levy C, Cohen R; Bacterial meningitis group, Delacourt C, Renolleau S, Flamant C. Acta Paediatr. 2010 Jan;99(1):47-51.

Timing of group B streptococcus screening in pregnancy: a systematic review. Valkenburg-van den Berg AW, Houtman-Roelofsen RL, Oostvogel PM, Dekker FW, Dörr PJ, Sprij AJ. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2010;69(3):174-83.

Chlorhexidine maternal-vaginal and neonate body wipes in sepsis and vertical transmission of pathogenic bacteria in South Africa: a randomised, controlled trial. Cutland CL, Madhi SA, Zell ER, Kuwanda L, Laque M, Groome M, Gorwitz R, Thigpen MC, Patel R, Velaphi SC, Adrian P, Klugman K, Schuchat A, Schrag SJ; PoPS Trial Team. Lancet. 2009 Dec 5;374(9705):1909-16.

Women Receiving Group B Streptococcus Serotype III Tetanus Toxoid (GBS III-TT) Vaccine Have Reduced Vaginal and Rectal Acquisition of GBS Type III. Hillier S, Ferris D, Fine P, Ferrieri P, Edwards M, Carey V, Ewell M, Meyn L, Paoletti L, Kasper D, Baker C. Presented on 30 October 2009 at the 47th Annual Meeting of the Infectious Diseases Society of America

Group B streptococcal meningitis: cerebrospinal fluid parameters in the era of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis. Ansong AK et al. Early Hum Dev 2009 Oct;85(10 Suppl);S5-7. Epub 2009 Sep 19.

Evaluation of universal antenatal screening for group B streptococcus. Van Dyke MK, Phares CR, Lynfield R, Thomas AR, Arnold KE, Craig AS, Mohle-Boetani J, Gershman K, Schaffner W, Petit S, Zansky SM, Morin CA, Spina NL, Wymore K, Harrison LH, Shutt KA, Bareta J, Bulens SN, Zell ER, Schuchat A, Schrag SJ. N Engl J Med. 2009 Jun 18;360(25):2626-36.

Group B streptococcus and early-onset sepsis in the era of maternal prophylaxis. Koenig JM, Keenan WJ. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2009 Jun;56(3):689-708,

Inappropriate use of vancomycin for preventing perinatal group B streptococcal (GBS) disease in laboring patients. Peláez LM, Gelber SE, Fox NS, Chasen ST. J Perinat Med. 2009 Jun 3.

Patient self-collection of group B streptococcal specimens during pregnancy. J Am Board Fam Med. 2009 Mar-Apr;22(2):136-40. Hicks P, Diaz-Perez MJ.

Evaluation of three selective enrichment media for detection of Group B Streptococcus in vaginal swabs[Article in Japanese]. Kansenshogaku Zasshi. 2009 Jan;83(1):52-5. Shibuya R, Yamashita T, Shibuya S, Hasegawa M, Kanayama A, Ikeda F, Kobayashi I, Tsuji A, Yamaguchi K.

Trends in Perinatal Group B Streptococcal Disease — United States, 2000–2006. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). MMWR Weekly. February 13, 2009 / 58(05);109-112

The accuracy of late antenatal screening cultures in predicting intrapartum group B streptococcal colonization. Kovavisarach E, Jarupisarnlert P, Kanjanaharuetai S. J Med Assoc Thai. 2008 Dec;91(12):1796-800.

Revisiting the Need for Vaccine Prevention of Late-Onset Neonatal Group B Streptococcal Disease: A Multistate, Population-Based Analysis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008 Nov 4. Jordan HT, Farley MM, Craig A, Mohle-Boetani J, Harrison LH, Petit S, Lynfield R, Thomas A, Zansky S, Gershman K, Albanese BA, Schaffner W, Schrag SJ; for CDCʼs Active Bacterial Core Surveillance (ABCs) / Emerging Infections Program Network.

Group B streptococcal conjugate vaccine: a timely concept for which the time has come. Hum Vaccin. 2008 Nov-Dec;4(6):444-8. Edwards MS.

Acquisition and transmission of group B Streptococcus during pregnancy. J Infect Dis. 2008 Nov 1;198(9):1375-8. Foxman B, de Azevedo CL, Buxton M, DeBusscher J, Pillai P, De Carvalho NS, Barbosa-Cesnik C.

The Effect of Universal Maternal Screening on the Incidence of Neonatal Early-Onset Group B Streptococcal Disease. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2008 Oct 2. Eberly MD, Rajnik M.

Group B Streptococcus colonization in pregnancy: prevalence and prevention strategies of neonatal sepsis. J Perinat Med. 2008 Oct 31. Rausch AV, Gross A, Droz S, Bodmer T, Surbek DV

An evaluation of a rapid real time polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of group B streptococcus as part of a neonatal group B streptococcus prevention strategy. Money D, Dobson S, Cole L, Karacabeyli E, Blondel-Hill E, Milner R, Thomas E. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2008 Sep;30(9):770-5.

Continued early onset group B streptococcal infections in the era of intrapartum prophylaxis. J Perinatol. 2008 Aug 14. Pulver LS, Hopfenbeck MM, Young PC, Stoddard GJ, Korgenski K, Daly J, Byington CL.

Duration of intrapartum prophylaxis and concentration of penicillin G in fetal serum at delivery. Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Aug;112(2 Pt 1):265-70. Barber EL, Zhao G, Buhimschi IA, Illuzzi JL.

Recurrence of group B streptococci colonization in subsequent pregnancy. Turrentine MA, Ramirez MM. Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Aug;112(2 Pt 1):259-64.

Prévention de l’infection néonatale à Streptocoques du groupe B à début précoce. Surbek D, Gross A, Seydoux J, Honegger C, Irion O, Drack G . 2008.

Epidemiology of invasive group B streptococcal disease in the United States, 1999-2005. Phares CR, Lynfield R, Farley MM, Mohle-Boetani J, Harrison LH, Petit S, Craig AS, Schaffner W, Zansky SM, Gershman K, Stefonek KR, Albanese BA, Zell ER, Schuchat A, Schrag SJ; Active Bacterial Core surveillance/Emerging Infections Program Network. JAMA. 2008 May 7;299(17):2056-65.

Prenatal antibiotic treatment does not decrease group B streptococcus colonization at delivery. Baecher L, Grobman W. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2008 May;101(2):125-8. Epub 2007 Dec 20.

Risk factors for recurrence of group B streptococcus colonization in a subsequent pregnancy. Cheng PJ, Chueh HY, Liu CM, Hsu JJ, Hsieh TT, Soong YK. Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Mar;111(3):704-9.

Prevalence of maternal group B streptococcal colonisation in European countries. Barcaite E, Bartusevicius A, Tameliene R, Kliucinskas M, Maleckiene L, Nadisauskiene R. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2008;87(3):260-71.

Self-collected versus health professional-collected genital swabs to identify the prevalence of group B streptococcus: A comparison of patient preference and efficacy. Arya A, Cryan B, O’Sullivan K, Greene RA, Higgins JR. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2008 Feb 4.

Comparison of combined vaginal-anorectal, vaginal and anorectal cultures in detecting of group B streptococci in pregnant women in labor. Kovavisarach E, Sa-adying W, Kanjanahareutai S. J Med Assoc Thai. 2007 Sep;90(9):1710-4.

Institution of universal screening for Group B streptococcus (GBS) from a risk management protocol results in reduction of early-onset GBS disease in a tertiary obstetric unit. Angstetra D, Ferguson J, Giles WB. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2007 Oct;47(5):378-82.

Epidemiology of early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal infection: implications for screening. Konrad G, Katz A. Can Fam Physician. 2007 Jun;53(6):1055, 2001:e.1-6, 1054.

Prevention of neonatal group B streptococcal infection: approaches of physicians in Winnipeg, Man. Konrad G, Hauch S, Pylypjuk C. Can Fam Physician. 2007 Feb;53(2):290, 289:e.1-5, 289.

Management of group B Streptococcus in pregnant women with penicillin allergy. Philipson EH, Lang DM, Gordon SJ, Burlingame JM, Emery SP, Arroliga ME. J Reprod Med. 2007 Jun;52(6):480-4.

Perinatal group B streptococcal disease after universal screening recommendations–United States, 2003-2005. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2007 Jul 20;56(28):701-5.

Selective versus non-selective culture medium for group B streptococcus detection in pregnancies complicated by preterm labor or preterm-premature rupture of membranes. Nomura ML, Passini Júnior R, Oliveira UM. Braz J Infect Dis. 2006 Aug;10(4):247-50.

Epidemiology of neonatal group B streptococcal disease in the Netherlands before and after introduction of guidelines for prevention. Trijbels-Smeulders M, de Jonge GA, Pasker-de Jong PC, Gerards LJ, Adriaanse AH, van Lingen RA, Kollée LA. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2007 Jul;92(4):F271-6. Epub 2007 Jan 16.

Evaluation of polymerase chain reaction for group B streptococcus detection using an improved culture method. Atkins KL, Atkinson RM, Shanks A, Parvin CA, Dunne WM, Gross G. Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Sep;108(3 Pt 1):488-91.

Maternal anxiety about prenatal screening for group B streptococcus disease and impact of positive colonization results. Cheng PJ, Shaw SW, Lin PY, Huang SY, Soong YK. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2006 Sep-Oct;128(1-2):29-33. Epub 2006 Mar 2.

Early-onset and late-onset neonatal group B streptococcal disease–United States, 1996-2004. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2005 Dec 2;54(47):1205-8.

Early-Onset Group B Streptococcal Disease in the Era of Maternal Screening. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2005 Oct

Group B streptococcus disease in neonates: To screen or not to screen? J Obstet Gynaecol. 2005 Jul

Efficacy of intramuscular penicillin in the eradication of group B streptococcal colonization at delivery. Pinette MG, Thayer K, Wax JR, Blackstone J, Cartin A. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2005 May.

Trends in the epidemiology of neonatal sepsis of vertical transmission in the era of group B streptococcal prevention. Acta Paediatr. 2005 Apr

Antenatal screening for Group B Streptococcus: A diagnostic cohort study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2005 Jul

Clinical features and epidemiology of septicaemia and meningitis in neonates due to Streptococcus agalactiae in Copenhagen County, Denmark: a 10 year survey from 1992 to 2001. Andersen J, Christensen R, Hertel J. Acta Paediatr. 2004 Oct;93(10):1334-9.

Trends in sepsis-related neonatal mortality in the United States, 1985-1998. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2004 Jul

Ten-year study on the effect of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis on early onset group B streptococcal and Escherichia coli neonatal sepsis in Australasia.  Daley et al. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2004

Vaginal chlorhexidine during labour to prevent early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal infection. Stade BC, Shah VS, Ohlsson A. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2004, Issue 3. Art. No: CD003520. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003520.pub2.

Active surveillance of early onset disease due to group B streptococci in newborns. Straková L, Motlová J. Indian J Med Res, 2004 May;119 Suppl;205-7

High burden of invasive Streptococcus agaaciae disease in South African infants. Madhi SA Radebe K et al Ann Trop Paediatr 2003 Mar;23(1):15-23

Decreasing incidence of perinatal group B streptococcal disease (Barcelona 1994-2002). Relation with hospital prevention policies. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2003

A population-based comparison of strategies to prevent early-onset group B streptococcal disease in neonates. Schrag SJ, Zell ER, Lynfield R,et al;Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Team. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jul 25;347(4):233-9.

Impact of different prevention strategies on neonatal group B streptococcal disease. Am J Perinatol. 2002

Early-onset neonatal sepsis in the era of group B streptococcal prevention. Pediatrics 2001

Late third-trimester treatment of rectovaginal group B streptococci with benzathine penicillin G. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000 Aug;183(2):372-6.

Risk factors for early-onset group B streptococcal sepsis: estimation of odds ratios by critical literature review. Pediatrics. 2000 Aug;106(2 Pt 1):377-8.

The influence of intrapartum antibiotics on the clinical spectrum of early-onset group B streptococcal infection in term infants. Bromberger P, Lawrence JM, Braun D, Saunders B, Contreras R, Petitti DB. Pediatrics, 2000 Aug;106(2 Pt 1):244-50

Intrapartum antibiotics and early onset neonatal sepsis caused by group B streptococcus and by other organisms in Australia. Australasian Study Group for Neonatal Infections Pediatr Infect Dis J 1999

Risk factors for early-onset group B streptococcal sepsis: estimation of odds ratios by critical literature review. Benitz WE, Gould JB, Druzin ML. .l literature review. Pediatrics 1999; 103(6):e77.

Acute bacterial meningitis in children admitted to the Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyrem, Malawi in 1996-97. Molyneux E, Walsh A, Phiri A, Molyneux M. Trop Med Int Health 1998 Aug;3(8):610-8.

Can pregnant women obtain their own specimens for group B streptococcus? A comparison of maternal versus physician screening. The Mount Sinai GBS Screening Group. Molnar P, Biringer A, McGeer A, McIsaac W. Fam Pract. 1997 Oct;14(5):403-6.

The accuracy of late antenatal screening cultures in predicting genital group B streptococcal colonization at delivery. Yancey MK, Schuchat A, Brown LK, Ventura VL, Markenson GR. Obstet Gynecol. 1996 Nov;88(5):811-5. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1984 Apr 1;148(7):915-28.

Group B Streptococcal disease; its importance in the developing world and prospect for prevention with vaccines. Walsh JA Hutchins S. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1989 May;8(5):271-7.

Bacterial attachment to the chorioamniotic membranes. Galask RP, Varner MW, Petzold CR, Wilbur SL.

Long-term sequelae of group B streptococcal meningitis in infants. MS Edwards, MA Rench, A Haffar, M Murphy, M Desmond, C Baker. The Journal of Pediatrics, May 1985 Vol 106:5 P 717-722